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LANDMARK TRIALS IN ANAESTHESIA, BY THEME

ANAESTHETIC FUNDAMENTALS

AIRWAY MANAGEMENT

Transnasal Humidified Rapid‐Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE)
NAP4 – airway complications

ANAESTHETIC PROCEDURES

CRISIS MANAGEMENT, RESUSCITATION & FLUID MANAGEMENT

RELIEF
Preemptive hemodynamic intervention to improve postoperative outcomes
An improved paradigm for prescribing intravenous fluid therapy
Perioperative fluid management strategies in major surgery
NAP6 – anaphylaxis
Association between intraoperative blood transfusion and mortality and morbidity
Association of intraoperative hypotension with acute kidney injury
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis
Diagnostic accuracy of pulse pressure variations for the prediction of fluid responsiveness
Inflammatory response, immunosuppression, and cancer recurrence after blood transfusions
POISE-II
SAFE

GENERAL ANAESTHESIA & SEDATION

Relationship between intraoperative mean arterial pressure and clinical outcomes
BALANCED
ENIGMA-II
NAP5 – awareness
ENIGMA
B-AWARE
BIS-guided anesthesia decreases postoperative delirium and cognitive decline
Protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia improves postoperative pulmonary function
Monitoring depth of anaesthesia decreases the rate of postoperative delirium but not postoperative cognitive dysfunction
Evidence-based analysis of risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting
Protective versus conventional ventilation for surgery
Hospital stay and mortality are increased in patients having a ‘triple low’
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is independent of type of surgery and anesthetic
Long-term survival for patients undergoing volatile versus IV anesthesia for cancer surgery
Lasting impact of general anaesthesia on the brain: mechanisms and relevance

PAIN MANAGEMENT

Pain Intensity on the first day after surgery
Sex differences in pain
Perioperative single dose systemic dexamethasone for postoperative pain
Effect of systemic α2 agonists on postoperative morphine consumption and pain intensity
Impact of perioperative dexamethasone on postoperative analgesia and side-effects
Combining paracetamol with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
The prevention of chronic postsurgical pain using gabapentin and pregabalin
Perioperative oral pregabalin reduces chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty

REGIONAL ANAESTHESIA

The analgesic efficacy of pre‐operative bilateral erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks
Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty
Pectoral nerves I and II blocks in multimodal analgesia for breast cancer surgery
NAP3 – neuraxial complications
MASTER

GOOD ANAESTHESIA PRACTICE

PROFESSIONALISM

Perioperative fasting in adults and children (ESA, 2011)
Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration (2011)
Recommendations for standards of monitoring during anaesthesia and recovery (AAGBI, 2015)

SAFETY & QUALITY

PROXI

PERIOPERATIVE CARE

INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE

PERIOPERATIVE MEDICINE

POISE
High STOP-Bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea
Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery
Effect of anaesthetic technique and other perioperative factors on cancer recurrence
Reduced length of hospital stay in colorectal surgery after implementation of an enhanced recovery protocol

TRAUMA

CRASH-2
CRASH

SPECIALTY PATIENT GROUPS

OBSTETRICS

WOMAN
The risk of cesarean delivery with neuraxial analgesia given in early versus late in labor
Fetal and maternal effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine during spinal anaesthesia for cesarean delivery
Regional versus general anaesthesia for caesarean section 

PAEDIATRICS

The GAS trial
Association between a single general anesthesia exposure before age 36 months and neurocognitive outcomes in later childhood
Cognitive and behavioral outcomes after early exposure to anesthesia and surgery
Long-term differences in language and cognitive function after childhood exposure to anesthesia
Association of anesthesia and surgery during childhood with long-term academic performance
Early childhood exposure to anesthesia and risk of developmental and behavioral disorders
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia
Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants
Prospective multi-centre RCT of cuffed or unruffled endotracheal tubes in small children

SURGICAL SPECIALTIES

ANAESTHESIA IN OUTSIDE AREAS

CARDIAC SURGERY, INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY

ATACAS
Point-of-care testing in coagulopathic cardiac surgery patients
Coagulation factor concentrates combined with point-of-care coagulation testing in cardiac surgery
Dexmedetomidine versus propofol sedation reduces delirium after cardiac surgery
Protection by remote ischemic preconditioning with isoflurane but not propofol

GENERAL SURGERY, UROLOGY, GYNAECOLOGY, ENDOSCOPY

High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery

HEAD & NECK, EAR, NOSE & THROAT, DENTAL SURGERY

NEUROSURGERY, NEURORADIOLOGY

AnStroke
Conscious sedation vs general anesthesia on early neurological improvement among patients with ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular thrombectomy

OPHTHALMOLOGY

ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

PLASTIC SURGERY, BURNS

THORACIC SURGERY

VASCULAR SURGERY, INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY

GALA
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